Bonding of carbon with other elements
- In addition to hydrogen carbon also form bonds with other elements like halogens, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and many more.
- One or more hydrogen bonded to carbon can be replaced by any of the elements mentioned above in such a way that the valency of carbon remains satisfied.
- The element that replaces the hydrogen from the compound is termed as a heteroatom.
Fig. One of the hydrogen atoms in methane is replaced by chlorine atom.
- The heteroatom deliberates certain specific properties to the compound that alters its previous behaviour irrespective of the length and nature of the carbon chain. They are termed as functional groups.