Class 10 Chemistry Carbon and Its Compounds Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds

Steps to determine the nomenclature of Carbon Compounds

  • Identify the number of carbon atoms in the compound.

Number of carbon atoms

Term to be used

1

Meth

2

Eth

3

Prop

4

But

5

Pent

6

Hex

7

Hept

8

Oct

9

Non

10

Dec

 

(ii) If the compound contains a functional group, it is indicated in the name of the compound with either a prefix or a suffix.

 

Functional Group

Prefix (R-) /suffix (-R)

Example

Halogen

 -chloro or – bromo

Depending upon the functional group added.

Cholorethane/ Bromoethane

Alcohol

 -ol

Ethanol

Aldehyde

-al

Ethanal

Ketone

-one

Ethanone

Carboxylic acid

-oic acid

Ethanoic acid

 

(iii) The functional group present in the compound is indicated as suffix by removing the e at the end and adding the appropriate suffix as discussed in the table. For example, a two-carbon chain with an Aldehyde group would be named as: - Ethane – ‘e’ = Ethan + ‘one’ = Ethanone.

(iv) In case of unsaturated carbon chain the final ‘ane’ in the name of the carbon chain is substituted by ‘ene’ for double bond or ‘yne’ for triple bond.

 

Functional Group

Prefix (R-) /suffix (-R)

Example

Alkane (Single bond)

-ane

Ethane

Alkene (Double bond)

-ene

Ethene

Alkyne (Triple bond)

-yne

Ethyne

 

For example,

  • Here number of carbon atoms = 3 i.e. so the term to be used is
  • The functional group added is Chlorine so the suffix to be used is chloro.
  • Position of chloro is second carbon so the IUPAC name of the given compound is 2-chloropropane.

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