- Detergents are cleansing agents possessing ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids that are used to clean clothes in hard water.
- Hard water is the water containing calcium and magnesium carbonates. Soap forms lather with these carbonate salts thereby making it difficult to clean the clothes.
Fig. Ions present in hard water
- The charged ends of detergent do not form scum or precipitates with the calcium and magnesium ions present in hard water.
- Therefore they remain effective in cleaning dirt in hard water as compared to soap.
- They are also used for manufacturing shampoos and various cleansing products.