Class 10 Physics Magnetic Effects of Electric Current Domestic Electric circuits

Domestic Electric circuits

  • We receive power in our house through a main supply, commonly called mains.
  • It is supplied through overhead cables or underground cables.
  • There are 3 types of wires in domestic circuits : Earth Wire, Live Wire, Neutral Wire.
    • Earth wire: It is generally green in color. It is usually connected to a metal plate placed in the earth near the house as a safety measure to ground gadgets that have a metallic body. (refrigerator, toaster). In case of charges leaking on to the metallic body, the charges gets grounded and thus prevent shocks.
    • Live wire: Positive wire generally red in color
    • Neutral wire: Negative wire generally black in color
  • The potential difference (or voltage) supplied in our country is 220V
  • When they come into our houses, they pass through a circuit called a Fuse. Whenever there is a high voltage, voltage fluctuation, overloading, short circuit the fuse melts and prevents the high voltage reaching the electric appliance. This saves the electrical gadget.
  • Then through the metre board in the house, these wires pass on to different electric gadgets
  • Generally 2 types of electric circuits are used at homes
    • 15A : Appliances which have higher power ratings. (geysers, refrigerators, ACs)
    • 5A: Appliances which have lower power ratings. (TV, bulbs, fans)


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