Class 10 Physics Sources of Energy Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy

  • Atom consists of nucleus and electrons in orbits.
  • The nucleus consists of protons (positively charged particles) and nuetrons (nuetrally charged particles)

 

 

 

 

 

  • Energy is obtained from the nucleus in the following methods

 

  • Nuclear Fusion: Breaking a heavy nuclei into 2 or more smaller lighter nuclei
  • Nuclear Fission : Combining 2 lighter nuclei to form a heavy nucleus
    • Uncontrolled chain reaction : In an uncontrolled nuclear fission, a heavy nucleus in bombarded with a neutron. It splits into lighter nuclei releasing 2 or more neutrons. Each neutron again bombards nuclei of atom and splits further and further. The neutrons and thereby the fission reaction exponentially increases. Eg : Atom bomb
    • Controlled chain reaction : In an controlled nuclear fission, a heavy nucleus in bombarded with a neutron. It splits into lighter nuclei releasing 2 or more neutrons. But in this case, except one neutron all the other neutrons are absorbed. So, only one neutron is left. This single neutron again bombards nuclei of atom and splits further and further. Again only one neutron is left behind and the others are absorbed. So, the reaction is controlled. Eg: Nuclear generator.
    • In a nuclear generator, nuclear energy is harnessed in a controlled manner to generate electricity.

 

 

Advantages of Nuclear Power Plant

Disadvantages of Nuclear Power Plant

·         Energy is released is extremely large.

·         The amount of initial fuel required is very small.

 

·         The products used and by-products generated are radioactive and extremely harmful for man.

·         Installation cost of nuclear plant is very high.

 

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