Class 11 Biology Anatomy of Flowering Plants The vascular tissue system

The vascular tissue system

  • The vascular system consists of complex tissues, the phloem and the xylem.
  • The xylem and phloem together constitute vascular bundles.
  • In dicotyledonous stems, cambium is present between phloem and xylem, such vascular bundles because of the presence of cambium possess the ability to form secondary xylem and phloem tissues, and hence are called open vascular bundles.
  • In the monocotyledons, the vascular bundles have no cambium present in them, hence they do not form secondary tissues and they are referred to as closed vascular bundles.
  • When xylem and phloem within a vascular bundle are arranged in an alternate manner on different radii, the arrangement is called radial. Example- roots.
  • In conjoint type of vascular bundles, the xylem and phloem are situated at the same radius of vascular bundles. Example- stem and leaves.


Fig. Vascular tissue system

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