Class 11 Biology Excretory Products Elimination Structure of Kidney

Structure of Kidney

Average weight of a kidney is approx.  120- 170 gms. Important structures in a kidney are as follows:

  • Hilum
    • Centre of the inner concave surface of kidney
    • Ureter, blood vessels & nerves enter the kidney here
  • Renal pelvis
    • Funnel-shaped space inside the Hilum
    • Receives urine from kidney nephrons
  • Calyx
    • Projections of the Renal pelvis
    • Small hollow tubes to collect urine
    • Minor calyces merge to form major calyces which in turn form the hollow Renal pelvis
  • Renal capsule
    • Thin layer of connective tissue surrounding kidney
    • Fibrous & transparent
    • Tough layer ensures protection of inner soft tissues
    • Provides shape to the kidneys
  • Zones of kidney:
    • Cortex
      • Smooth outer zone
      • Reddish in color
    • Medulla
      • Striated inner zone
      • Reddish- brown in color


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