- The pteridophytes are found in cool, damp, shady places.
- The main plant body is a sporophyte which is differentiated into true root, stem and leaves, possess well-differentiated vascular tissues.
- The sporophytes bear sporangia that are subtended by leaf-like appendages called sporophylls, which may form distinct compact structures called strobili or cones.
- The sporangia produce spores by meiosis in spore mother cells, the spores germinate to give rise to thalloid gametophytes called
- The gametophytes bear male and female sex organs called antheridia and archegonia, respectively.
- Water is required for transfer of antherozoids to the mouth of archegonium and fusion of male gamete with the egg present in the archegonium result in the formation of zygote.
- Zygote produces a multicellular well-differentiated sporophyte which is the dominant phase of the pteridophytes.
- If all the spores are of similar kinds; such plants are called homosporous and if the spores are dissimilar such as micro and macrospores, these are called as
Example- Selaginella and Salvinia produce micro and macrospores.
- The development of the zygotes into young embryos take place within the female gametophytes.
- The pteridophytes are further classified into four classes
- Psilopsida (Eg. Psilotum)
Lycopsida ( Eg.Selaginella, Lycopodium),
- Sphenopsida ( Eg.Equisetum) and
- Pteropsida (Eg. Dryopteris, Pteris).