Class 11 Biology Plant Kingdom Pteridophytes


  • The pteridophytes are found in cool, damp, shady places.
  • The main plant body is a sporophyte which is differentiated into true root, stem and leaves, possess well-differentiated vascular tissues.
  • The sporophytes bear sporangia that are subtended by leaf-like appendages called sporophylls, which may form distinct compact structures called strobili or cones.
  • The sporangia produce spores by meiosis in spore mother cells, the spores germinate to give rise to thalloid gametophytes called
  • The gametophytes bear male and female sex organs called antheridia and archegonia, respectively.
  • Water is required for transfer of antherozoids to the mouth of archegonium and fusion of male gamete with the egg present in the archegonium result in the formation of zygote.
  • Zygote produces a multicellular well-differentiated sporophyte which is the dominant phase of the pteridophytes.
  • If all the spores are of similar kinds; such plants are called homosporous and if the spores are dissimilar such as micro and macrospores, these are called as

Example- Selaginella and Salvinia produce micro and macrospores.

  • The development of the zygotes into young embryos take place within the female gametophytes.
  • The pteridophytes are further classified into four classes
  • Psilopsida (Eg. Psilotum)


Fig. Psilotum

Lycopsida ( Eg.Selaginella, Lycopodium),


Fig. Lycopodium


  • Sphenopsida ( Eg.Equisetum) and


Fig. Equisetum

  • Pteropsida (Eg. Dryopteris, Pteris).


Fig. Dryopteris

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