Class 11 Chemistry Chemical Bonding Structure HYBRIDISATION


We know orbitals of last shell overlap with each other.  The overlapping is of two types:

  • Head to head(sigma bond)
  • Sidewise(pi bond)

Overlapping of orbitals takes place between which has same energy. If in case, the orbitals have different energy they can’t overlap. Hybridization is the intermixing of orbitals of slightly different energies, so as to redistribute their energy and give rise to new set of orbitals that are similar in shapes and energy.

Let us explain this on the basis of promotion effect:



  • Number of hybrid orbitals is equal to number of atomic orbitals that combine.
  • The hybrid orbitals are always equal in shape and energy.
  • The hybrid orbitals are more effective in forming bonds as compared to pure atomic orbitals.
  • The hybrid orbitals are directed towards specific directions in space.
  • The type of hybridization gives us the shape of molecule

Now there is a question that can all participate in hybridization

Conditions of hybridization

  • The only valence orbitals participate.
  • The atomic orbitals that participate should have almost same energy.
  • Promotion is not always necessary.
  • The unpaired as well as fully filled orbitals can also participate.

Types of hybridization

  1. sp hybridization: In this one s and one p orbital combines as shown below.




            sp3   (1s  +  3p)



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