Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Different Type of Organic Compounds

Different Type of Organic Compounds

  1. Hydrocarbon

They are of two types:

  • Saturated
  • Unsaturated

Saturated: They are called as Alkanes (paraffins) with general formula CnH2n+2

 Unsaturated: They are also called as olefins. They may be -

  • Alkenes (general formula CnH2n).
  • Alkynes (general formula CnH2n-2.).

10 = If carbon atom is joined one other Carbo atom(primary)

20 = If carbon atom is joined two other Carbo atom(secondary)

30 = If carbon atom is joined three other Carbo atom(tertiary)

40 = If carbon atom is joined four other Carbo atom(quaternary)

 

 Alkyl halides (Haloalkanes)                                                

Like in CH4 the one Hydrogen atom is replaced by Halogen. So, it becomes CH3Cl . The general name of it is Haloalkane.

Formula :- CnH2n+1(RX)

IUPAC and Common names of compounds

Example:

Class_11_Concepts_Of_Chemistry_IUPAC_Names_Example

  1. Alcohols CnH2n+1OH’

Class_11_Concepts_Of_Chemistry_IUPAC_Names_AlcoholExample

  1. Aldehyde (Alkanals) CnH2n+1 CHO

 HCHO  Methanal   Formaldehyde

CH3CHO  Ethanal  Acetaldehyde

CH3CH2CHO  Propanal propion Aldehyde

  1. Ketone :CnH2n+1CO CnH2n+1

CH3-CO-CH3 Propanaone DiMethylKetone

CH3-CO=CH2CH3  Butanone   EthylMethyl Ketone

  1. Carboxylic acid: - CnH2n+1COOH

 

HCOOH = Methanoic Acid   Formic Acid

CH3COOH = Ethanoic Acid   Acetic Acid

  1. Amines: - CnH2n+1NH2

CH3NH2  Methane-Amine   MethylAmine

RULES FOR IUPAC

  1. Select the longest continuous carbon chain.
  2. Longest chain with maximum number of substituent is selected.
  3. Numbering is done in such way that substituent gets the lowest number.
  4. It two substituent are present, than we follow as the lowest sum rule.
  5. If the same subsequent appears twice or thrice then di, tri, or is used.
  6. If different substituent is present, than alphabetical order is followed.
  7. If double or triple bond is present in addition to substituent then double or triple bond gets the lowest number.
  8. If both double and triple bond are present, than lowest number is given to double bond.
  9. In IUPAC: Name is written in order-

Prefix... Word Root.... Primary Suffix..... Seconadry Suffix

In case of double & triple bond

  1. Select chain that involves double or triple bond.
  2. Suffix ene or yne are used.
  3. Multiple bonds should get the lowest number.
  4. If multiple bond occurs two or more, than prefix di, tri etc.
  5. Double bond is given preference over triple bond.

Class_11_Concepts_Of_Chemistry_IUPAC_Names

 

Share these Notes with your friends  

< Prev Next >

You can check our 5-step learning process


.