Class 11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Reaction Intermediates


Reaction intermediates are free carbocation and carbon anion.

  • Free Radical: It formed as a result of homolytic fission. Due to this extra electron, they are quite reactive.


They are of 4 types:



Stability of these radicals:

30> 20> 10> CH3


We can explain their stability by :

 30> 20> 10> CH3

It is explained on the basis of hyper configuration: More the alkyl groups , more is the number of hydrogen and more are the conjugated structures .Hence, more is the stability.


  • Carbocation: It is formed as a result of hydrolytic fission. It is the Carbon with six electron and a positive charge.


Types of Carbocations :

Class_11_Concepts_Of_Chemistry_ Types_Of_Carbocations

Stability can be explained on the basis of +I effect –More the alkyl groups , more they release electrons and more the positive charge gets neutralized .Hence, more is the stability.

 Class_11_Concepts_Of_Chemistry_ Types_Of_Carbocations



  1. They are Carbon with 8 e-.
  2. They are Electron rich.
  3. They act as Lewis base.
  4. They are Formed as a result of heterolytic fission.



Types of Carboanions:


  • More the alkyl group,more they release electrons and more intense the charge becomes.Hence, least will be the stability.

 Attacking agents

When the reaction occurs, attacking agent attacks and the product is formed.

 Type of attacking agents: They can be

  • Free radical : With unpaired electron
  • Nucleophile: With extra electrons. They also act as Lewis base and does Nucleus love. They are either:

Neutral with Lone pair: H2O , NH3 , NH2 , R – O – H , R – O - R

Negatively Charged: CN- , X- , OH-

  • Electrophile: With Positive charge has less electrons and act as Lewis acids. They are either :

Neutral: BF3 , BCl3 , AlCl3 etc .

Positively charged: NH4+ , NO2+ , H3 O+ etc .


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