It was given by Schrodinger. He said if we take both the characters in account that is particle character and wave character, we have to define a property that is a wave function.
Schrodinger wave equation
On the basis of it Schrodinger simplified equation as:
Physical significance of wavefunction: ”
- It gives the amplitude associated with it. But if we do square of it, than it gives the probability of finding the electron in particular region.
Orbital: It is three-dimensional space, where probability of finding an electron in maximum.
Difference between orbit and orbital:
Orbital: They are of four types
- s orbital: Spherical in shape, non-directional. It has only 1 orbital therefore, can accommodate only 2 electrons.
- P-orbital: dumb-bell shaped and directional. It has 3 orbital (px, py, pz). It can accommodate maximum of 6 electrons.
- d-orbital: It has double dumbbell, directional. It has 5 orbital (dxy,dyz,dzx,dx2-y2,dz2).It can accommodate maximum of 10 electrons
- F-orbital: It has diffused shape. It has 7 orbital therefore, can accommodate maximum of 14 electrons.
They are set of 4 numbers, which give complete information about the address of electron.
There are 4 types of quantum numbers:
- Principal quantum number.
- Azimuthal quantum number.
- Magnetic quantum number.
- Spin quantum number.
Principal quantum number:
- It is represented as ‘n’.
- It was given by Bohr.
- It represents the orbit where electron is going to be present.
- It gives number of electron in orbit by formula 2 n2.
- It gives angular momentum of electron.
- It gives energy of electron.
- It gives radius of orbit.
- Azimuthal quantum number:
- It gives information about sub shell of an atom.
- It is represented as ‘l’.
- It was introduced by Somerfield.
- It always has value (n-1).
Example: if n=1 ,l=0
- Magnetic quantum number:
- It describes the behavior of electron in magnetic field.
- It is represented as ‘m’.
- It was given by land.
- Its value is equal to –l,0, +l
For example: if n=1, l=0, m=0 that is only one orbital
If n=2, l=0,1, m=-1,0, +1 that is three orbitals
- Spin quantum number:
- It gives the info about spinning of electron about its axis i.e. clockwise or anticlockwise
- It is denoted by ‘s’.
- Its value is either =+1/2, -1/2
Problem: Write down the quantum numbers n , l and m for the
- 3d x2 – y2
- 4d z2
n=3, l=2, m=+2
N = 4, l=2, m=0