Class 11 Chemistry Structure of Atom Pauli’s exclusion Principle

Pauli’s exclusion Principle

According to it: “no two electrons can have the same set of all four quantum numbers.”

Or, it states that an orbital can have maximum of two electrons and that must be of opposite spin. Due to this, it was concluded that an orbital can have maximum of two electrons which can have all 3-quantum number same but the spin will be definitely different.

Shapes of atomic orbitals:

  1. s –orbital

Its shape is spherical.For 1s the probability of finding electron is maximum near nucleus and it decreases as we move away from nucleus.

 Class_11_Chemistry_Structure_Of_Atom_S-Orbital

 

For 2s: Again, probability of finding electron is maximum near nucleus and decrease as the distance increase. But it has one ring in it, where probability of finding electron is zero that is a nodal plane or a node.

The shape of 2s differs from 1s as it has one node and 1s has no node. Similarly, in 3s there are two nodes.

The different s orbitals differ from each other in number of nodes, size and energy.

  1. Shape of p orbital

Its shape is dumb-bell. It is found that probability of finding electron is maximum in both the lobes. There is a plane passing through nucleus where probability of finding the electron is almost zero. That is nodal plane.

There are 3 sub-shells: px, py and pz.

Class_11_Chemistry_Structure_Of_Atom_P_Orbital

It is directional in nature.All the 3 p orbitals are degenerate that is have same energy.

 

  1. Shape of d orbital:

It has 5 subshells:dxy,dyz,dzx,dx2-y2 and dz2

There shapes are given as shown:

Class_11_Chemistry_Structure_Of_Atom_d_Orbital

The shape of dz2 is called as doughnut shape or baby soother type shape.

Number of nodes in any orbital can be calculated by: (n-l-1).

Class_11_Chemistry_Structure_Of_Atom_Number_Of_Nodes

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