Class 11 Physics Kinetic Theory Law of Equipartition of energy:Degrees of Freedom

Law of Equipartition of energy:Degrees of Freedom

• Degrees of Freedom can be defined as independent displacements or rotations that specify the orientation of a body or system.
• A molecule free to move in space needs three coordinates to specify its location.
• If it is constrained to move in a plane it needs to.
• If constrained to move along a line, it needs just one coordinate to locate it.
• For example:-Consider a room and if we tie a thick rope from one wall to another.
• Take a ball which is moving straight on the rope.
• The ball has only 1 degree of freedom. It can move only in one particular dimension.
• Consider if the ball is on the floor which is two-dimensional, then the ball can move along 2 directions.
• The ball has 2 degree of freedoms.
• Consider if we throw the ball in space which is 3 dimensional. Then the ball can move in 3 dimensions.
• Therefore degree of freedom tells us in how many ways a body can move or rotate or vibrate.  Categories of Degrees of Freedom

1.Translational degree of freedom.

2.Rotational degree of freedom.

3.Vibrational degree of freedom.

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