Class 11 Physics Oscillations Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple Harmonic Motion

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) is a periodic motion the body moves to and fro about its mean position.The restoring force on the oscillating body is directly proportional to its displacement and is always directed towards its mean position.

In the above image we can see that a particle is vibrating to and fro within the limits –A and +A.

The oscillatory motion is said to be SHM if the displacement x of the particle from origin varies with time t:

x (t) = A cos (ωt + Φ)


x (t) : displacement x as a function of time

A= amplitude

  • It is defined as magnitude of maximum displacement of the particle from its mean position.

ωt +Φ = phase angle (time-dependent)

ω= angular frequency

Φ = phase constant

  • SHM is a periodic motion in which displacement is a sinusoidal function of time.

If we plot the graph between displacement versus time we can conclude that the displacement is continuous function of time.


The above graph shows displacement as a continuous function of time.

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