Class 11 Physics Units and Measurements Systematic Errors

Types of Errors- Systematic Errors

Errors which can either be positive or negative are called Systematic errors. They are of following types:

  1. Instrument errors: These arise from imperfect design or calibration error in the instrument. Worn off scale, zero error in a weighing scale are some examples of instrument errors.
  2. Imperfections in experimental techniques: If the technique is not accurate (for example measuring temperature of human body by placing thermometer under armpit resulting in lower temperature than actual) and due to the external conditions like temperature, wind, humidity, these kinds of errors occur.

3. Personal errors: Errors occurring due to human carelessness, lack of proper setting, taking down incorrect reading are called personal errors.

These errors can be removed by:

  • Taking proper instrument and calibrating it properly.
  • Experimenting under proper atmospheric conditions and techniques.

Removing human bias as far as possible

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