In our biosphere immense diversity (or heterogeneity) exists not only at the species level but at all levels of biological organization ranging from macromolecules within cells to biomes.
Biodiversity can be defined as the combined diversity at all the levels of biological organization.
Various types of biodiversity are-
Genetic diversity- A single species might show high diversity at the genetic level over its distributional range. Example- The genetic variation of the medicinal plant Rauwolfia vomitoria in potency and concentration of the active chemical reserpine that the plant produces.
Species diversity: The diversity at the species level. For example, the Western Ghats have a greater amphibian species diversity than the Eastern Ghats.
Fig. western ghats
Ecological diversity: diversity at the ecosystem level. For example- deserts, rain forests, mangroves, coral reefs, wetlands, estuaries, and alpine meadows of India has a greater ecosystem diversity than a Scandinavian country like Norway.