Ways to conserve biodiversity
- Biodiversity can be conserved by In Situ and Ex Situ conservation.
- The process of protecting biodiversity at all levels by conserving and protecting the whole ecosystem is called in situ conservation.
- The process in which endangered and threatened animals are saved by taking urgent measures is called ex situ conservation.
- Biodiversity hotspots are the regions with very high levels of species richness and high degree of endemism.
- Three hotspots – Western Ghats and Sri Lanka, Indo-Burma and Himalaya – cover high biodiversity regions.
Fig. western Ghats and Himalaya
- Biodiversity-rich regions are legally protected as biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries.
- India now has 14 biosphere reserves, 90 national parks and 448 wildlife sanctuaries.
- Sacred groves are the forests in which tracts of forest were set aside, and all the trees and wildlife within were venerated and given total protection. Examples- Khasi and Jaintia Hills in Meghalaya, Aravalli Hills of Rajasthan.
Fig. khasi hills
- In ex-situ conservation, threatened animals and plants are taken out from their natural habitat and placed in special setting where they can be protected and given special care. Examples- Zoological parks, botanical gardens and wildlife safari park.
- Gametes of threatened species can be preserved in viable and fertile condition for long periods using cryopreservation techniques, eggs can be fertilized in vitro, and plants can be propagated using tissue culture methods.