Class 12 Biology Biotechnology Principles Principles of biotechnology

Principles of biotechnology

The two core techniques that enabled birth of modern biotechnology are –

1. Genetic engineering

2. Maintenance of sterile conditions.


  • Genetic engineering is the technique of altering the chemistry of DNA and RNA so that it can be introduced into the host organism to change the phenotype of the host organism.
  • Sterile conditions should be maintained to enable growth of only the desired microbe or eukaryotic cell in large quantities for the manufacture antibiotics, vaccines, enzymes, etc.
  • Hybridization procedures often lead to inclusion and multiplication of undesirable genes along with the desired genes.
  • The techniques of genetic engineering which include creation of recombinant DNA, use of gene cloning and gene transfer allows us to isolate and introduce only one or a set of desirable genes without introducing undesirable genes into the target organism.

Three basic steps in genetically modifying an organism —

  • Identification of DNA with desirable genes
  • Introduction of the identified DNA into the host
  • Maintenance of introduced DNA in the host and transfer of the DNA to its progeny.

Fig. genetic engineering

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