Class 12 Biology Biotechnology Principles Bioreactors


  • Bioreactor is the cylindrical vessel in which biological processes is carried out on a large scale.
  • The recombinant cells can be multiplied in a continuous culture system wherein the used medium is drained out from one side while fresh medium is added from the other to maintain the cells.
  • Bioreactors vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products, individual enzymes, etc., using microbial plant, animal or human cells.
  • A bioreactor provides the optimal conditions for achieving the desired product by providing optimum growth conditions such as temperature, pH, substrate, salts, vitamins, oxygen.
  • Bioreactors are of two types-

1. Simple stirred tank bioreactor

2. Sparged stirred-tank bioreactor

  • A stirred-tank reactor is usually cylindrical or with a curved base to facilitate the mixing of the reactor contents and the stirrer facilitates even mixing and oxygen availability throughout the bioreactor.
  • In sparged stirred-tank bioreactor sterile air is sparged through the reactor.
  • The bioreactor has an agitator system, an oxygen delivery system and a foam control system, a temperature control system, pH control system and sampling ports so that small volumes of the culture can be withdrawn periodically.


Fig. simple stirred-tank bioreactor and sparged stirred-tank bioreactor  

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