Biotechnological applications in agriculture
- Methods opted for increasing food production are-
- Agro-chemical based agriculture.
- Organic agriculture.
- Genetically engineered crop-based agriculture.
- Plants, bacteria, fungi and animals whose genes have been altered by manipulation are called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO).
Fig. genetically modified mouse, tomato
- Genetic modification has-
- Made crops more tolerant to abiotic stresses.
- Reduced reliance on chemical pesticides.
- Helped to reduce post-harvest losses.
- Increased efficiency of mineral usage by enhanced nutritional value of food, e.g., Vitamin ‘A’ enriched rice.
- To produce vitamin ‘A’ enriched rice two genes from daffodil and one from the bacterium Erwinia uredovora were inserted in the rice genome and these three genes produce the enzymes necessary to produce provitamin-A. When golden rice is ingested, the human body splits the provitamin-A to make vitamin A.
- The production of pest resistant plants such as Bt cotton and tobacco plants decreased the amount of pesticide used.