Class 12 Biology Ecosystem Ecosystem- structure and functions

Ecosystem- structure and functions

The various components of the environment are abiotic and biotic.

Interaction of biotic and abiotic components result in a physical structure that is characteristic for each type of ecosystem.

Biotic components are the living beings and abiotic components are the nonliving things of the ecosystem.

Vertical distribution of different species occupying different levels is called stratification.

The functional components of ecosystem are-

  • Productivity
  • Decomposition
  • Energy flow
  • Nutrient cycling


Fig. stratification- trees occupy the top level of the forest, shrubs the second and herbs and grasses the bottom layer.

Example of functional compoents of ecosystem is a pond ecosystem

The abiotic component is the water with all the dissolved inorganic and organic substances and the rich soil deposit at the bottom of the pond.

The solar input, the cycle of temperature, day-length and other climatic conditions regulate the rate of function of the entire pond.

The autotrophic components include the phytoplankton, some algae and the floating, submerged and marginal plants found at the edges.

The consumers are represented by the zooplankton, the free swimming and bottom dwelling forms.

The decomposers are the fungi, bacteria and flagellates especially abundant in the bottom of the pond.

Fig. a pond ecosystem

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