Class 12 Biology Enhancement In Food Production Animal breeding

Animal breeding

  • The process of creating a new breed with superior characters in the offspring is called animal breeding.
  • A group of animals related by descent and similar in most character like general appearance, features, size and configuration is called a breed
  • Breeding is of two types-

1. Inbreeding

2. Outbreeding

  • When breeding is between animals of the same breed it is called inbreeding.
  • Superior males and superior females of the same breed are identified and mated in pairs.
  • In case of cattle, superior female is the cow or buffalo produces more milk per lactation and a superior male is the bull which gives rise to superior progeny as compared to those of other males.
  • Inbreeding increases homozygosity.
  • Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive genes that are eliminated by selection.
  • It also helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of less desirable genes.
  • Continued inbreeding usually reduces fertility and even productivity, which is called inbreeding depression.
  • Out breeding programme is the solution to overcome in-breeding depression.
  • Crosses between different breeds are called outbreeding.
  • Out breeding is of three types-

1. Out crossing- Mating of animals within the same breed, but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generations is called outcrossing and the resulting  offsprings are called out cross.

2. Cross- breeding— Mating of superior male of one breed and superior female of another breed is called cross breeding. Desirable qualities of two breeds can be combined by this process. Hisardale is a new breed of sheep developed in Punjab by crossing Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams.

3. Interspecific hybridization- the process in which male and female of different species of animals are mated is called interspecific hybridization.

Example- mule, a hybrid of donkey and horse.

Fig. mule

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