- The process of creating a new breed with superior characters in the offspring is called animal breeding.
- A group of animals related by descent and similar in most character like general appearance, features, size and configuration is called a breed
- Breeding is of two types-
- When breeding is between animals of the same breed it is called inbreeding.
- Superior males and superior females of the same breed are identified and mated in pairs.
- In case of cattle, superior female is the cow or buffalo produces more milk per lactation and a superior male is the bull which gives rise to superior progeny as compared to those of other males.
- Inbreeding increases homozygosity.
- Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive genes that are eliminated by selection.
- It also helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of less desirable genes.
- Continued inbreeding usually reduces fertility and even productivity, which is called inbreeding depression.
- Out breeding programme is the solution to overcome in-breeding depression.
- Crosses between different breeds are called outbreeding.
- Out breeding is of three types-
1. Out crossing- Mating of animals within the same breed, but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generations is called outcrossing and the resulting offsprings are called out cross.
2. Cross- breeding— Mating of superior male of one breed and superior female of another breed is called cross breeding. Desirable qualities of two breeds can be combined by this process. Hisardale is a new breed of sheep developed in Punjab by crossing Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams.
3. Interspecific hybridization- the process in which male and female of different species of animals are mated is called interspecific hybridization.
Example- mule, a hybrid of donkey and horse.