Class 12 Biology Enhancement In Food Production Indian hybrid crops of high yielding varieties

Indian hybrid crops of high yielding varieties

Wheat and rice

  • Due to the development of semi-dwarf varities of wheat and rice, rice production went up to from 35 million to 89.5 million tones.
  • Sonalika and Kalyansonaare the varieties of wheat which were introduced all over the wheat growing belt of India.
  • Semi- dwarf rice varites were derived from IR-8 from Philippines and Taichung Native-1 from Taiwan.
  • Better yielding semi dwarf varitiesJaya and Ratna were developed later in India.

Fig. wheat  

Sugarcane

  • Saccharumbarberiwas originally grown in North India but had poor sugar content and yield.
  • Saccharumofficinarumwas tropical cane grown in South India, had thicker stems and higher sugar content, but did not grow well in North.
  • Both the species were successfully crossed to get sugarcane varieties combining the desirable qualities of high yield, thick stems, high sugar and ability to grow in the all sugar cane areas of North India.

Fig. sugar cane  

Millets

  • Hybrid Maize, Bajra with high yielding property have been successfully developed in India.

Fig. millet

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