Class 12 Biology Enhancement In Food Production Tissue culture

Tissue culture

  • The method of growing a plant cell, tissue or an organ in an artificial nutrient medium under aseptic conditions provided with controlled conditions of light and temperature.
  • Whole plant can be generated from an explant.
  • Explant is any part of plant like cell, tissue or organ grown in a test tube containing artificial nutrient medium under sterile condition.
  • Totipotencyis the capacity of a plant cell to multiply and regenerate into a new plant.
  • The nutrient medium provides a carbon source such as sucrose, inorganic salts vitamins, amino acids and growth regulators like auxin, gibberellins and cytokinins.
  • The cells of explant start dividing in the medium and gives undifferentiated mass of tissue called
  • The callus later gives rose to embryoids called somatic embryoids which generate into new plants.
  • The method of production of thousands of plants through tissue culture is called micro propagation.
  • Plants grown by micro propagation are genetically identical called soma clones, because they are produced by somatic cells.

Importance of tissue culture-

  • Large number of plants from small or single cell can be produced in short duration.
  • Many important plants like tomato, appleand banana have been developed by tissue culture.
  • Production of disease free varieties through meristem culture.

Fig. tissue culture  

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