Drugs and alcohol abuse
The drugs which are commonly abused are opioids, cannabinoids and coca alkaloids.
- Opioids are the drugs which bind to specific opioid receptors present in our central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract.
- Heroin commonly called smack is chemically diacetylmorphine which is a white, odourless, bitter crystalline compound and is obtained by acetylation of morphine extracted from the latex of poppy plant Papaversomniferum
- Heroin is a depressant and slows down body functions.
- Cannabinoids interact with cannabinoid receptors present principally in the brain.
- Natural cannabinoids are obtained from the inflorescences of the plant Cannabis sativa.
- The flower tops, leaves and the resin of cannabis plant are used in various combinations to produce marijuana, hashish, charas and ganja.
- Effects on cardiovascular system of the body.
- Coca alkaloid or cocaine is obtained from coca plant Erythroxylum coca.
- Coca alkaloid interferes with the transport of the neuro-transmitterdopamine.
- Cocaine, commonly called as coke or crack .
- It has a potent stimulating action oncentral nervous system, producing a sense of euphoriaand increased energy.
- Excessive dosage of cocainecauses hallucinations.
Fig.Erythroxylum coca leaves
- Some plants withhallucinogenic properties are Atropabelladona and.
- Drugs like barbiturates, amphetamines,benzodiazepines, lysergic acid diethyl amides (LSD) are used asmedicines to help patients cope with mental illnesseslike depression and insomnia, are often abused.
- Morphine is a very effective sedative and painkiller is often abused.
- Tobacco conatins nicotine, an alkaloid.
- Nicotine stimulates adrenal gland to release adrenaline and nor-adrenaline into blood circulation, both of which raise blood pressure and increase heart rate.
- Smoking of tobacco is associated with increased incidence of cancers of lung, urinary bladder, throat, oral cavity, bronchitis, emphysema, coronary heart disease, gastric ulcer etc.
Fig. tobacco leaves