Class 12 Biology Inheritance Variation MENDEL’S LAW OF INHERITANCE


  • Mendel conducted hybridization experiments on garden peas for seven years (1856-1863). On the basis of these experiments he proposed the laws of inheritance.
  • He selected the characters that has two opposing traits and concluded his hybridization experiments on 14 true-breeding pea plant varieties. True-breeding means a breeding line which has undergone continuous self-pollination and shows stable trait inheritance and expression for many generations.


  • Reasons for selecting garden pea plant:
  • Easily available on large scale.
  • There are many varieties with distinct characteristics.
  • They are self-pollinated and can be cross-pollinated easily.
  • They have a short life cycle.
  • Reason for success of Mendel:
  • He studied one character at a time.
  • He used available techniques to avoid cross pollination by undesirable pollen grains.
  • He applied mathematics and statistics to analyze the results obtained from him.
  • Mendel selected seven contrasting characters for the experiment.

Share these Notes with your friends  

< Prev Next >

You can check our 5-step learning process