Class 12 Biology Organisms and Populations Mutualism


Mutualism is the interaction between two living organisms where both the organisms are equally benefitted and no one is harmed. Examples-

  • Lichens represent an intimate mutualistic relationship between a fungus and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria.

Fig. lichens

  • Mycorrhizae are associations between fungi and the roots of higher plants, where the fungi help the plant in the absorption of essential nutrients from the soil while the plant in turn provides the fungi with energy-yielding carbohydrates.
  • Plants provide nectar and pollen for pollinating agents and the pollinating agents in turn pollinate the flowers of plants.
  • Animals disperse the seeds of plants and plants provide juicy fruits for seed dispersers.
  • Fig tree is pollinated by a species of wasp only where the wasp pollinates the fig inflorescence while searching for suitable egg-laying sites and in return for the favor of pollination the fig offers the wasp some of its developing seeds, as food for the developing wasp larvae.


Fig. fig tree  

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