The process of fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote is called fertilization or syngamy.
Fig. fusion of sperm and egg
- Fertilization is of two types-
- In rotifers, insects, lizards female gametes develop in to new organisms without fertilization, the process is called as
- In this type of fertilization, syngamy occurs outside the body of organism. Example- in most aquatic organisms like algae, fish, amphibians.
- The major disadvantage of external fertilization is they produce a large number of off springs but the off springsare vulnerable to predators.
Fig. external fertilization and release of eggs in water
- Syngamy occurs inside the body of organisms. Example- fungi, birds, mammals.
- Male gametes are released close to the female gametes.