Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health Birth control

Birth control

  • Various contraceptives methods are available to control the birth of a child like natural method, barrier methods, intra uterine devices, oral contraceptives, injecting hormones, surgical methods.
  • Natural methods- this method avoid chances of meeting of sperms and ovum.

Periodic abstinence-

  1. In this method, couples avoid coitus from day 10 to 17 of the menstrual cycle when ovulation could be expected.
  2. This period is also called as fertile period as the chances of fertilization is very high during this period.

Withdrawal or coitus interruptus- In the method, the male partner withdraws the penis from the vagina just before ejaculation to avoid insemination.

Lactational amenorrhea-

  1. The menstrual cycle and ovulation do not occur during intense lactation and so the chances of pregnancy are low.
  2. This method is effective only upto six months after child birth.

Barrier methods- here, barriers are used to prevent the physical contact of sperms and ovum.


  1. The barriers which are made of thin rubber latex sheath to cover the penis or vagina in males and females respectively are called condoms.
  2. Also prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases
  • Condoms trap the ejaculate and prevent semen from entering the vagina

             Example- Nirodh, is a popular brand of condoms for males.

Diaphragms, cervical caps and vaults- made up of rubber which are inserted in female reproductive tract to cover the cervix during coitus to prevent conception by blocking the entry of sperms through the cervix.

Intra uterine devices-

  • Inserted by doctors in the uterus through the vagina which increases the phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus.
  • These are available as non-medicated IUDs such as CuT, Cu7, multiload 375 and hormone releasing IUDs such as LNG-20, Progestasert.

Oral contraceptive pills-

  • Small doses of progesterone or progesterone- estrogen combinations are used by the females in the form of tablets.
  • These are taken daily for 21 days starting from the fifth day of menstrual cycle and after a gap of 7 days it has to be repeated again.
  • Hormonal pills prevent ovulation and implantation by inhibiting the secretions of FSH and LH from the pituitary glands.
  • Saheli, an oral contraceptive pill is a non- steroid preparation used by females.

Fig. contraceptive pills  

Injections of hormones-

  • Progesterone along with other estrogen are used by females as injections under the skin,
  • The effective period is longer than pills but action is similar.

Surgical methods-


  1. The sterilization process in males is called vasectomy.
  2. In this process, a small part of the vas deferens is removed or tied up through a small incision on the scrotum.

Fig. vasectomy  


  1. The sterilization procedure in the females is called as tubectomy.
  2. In this method, a small part of the fallopian tube is removed or tied up through a small incision in the abdomen or through vagina.

Fig. tubectomy

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