Class 12 Chemistry Amines Structure of Amines

Structure of Amines

  • Amines can be considered as derivatives of ammonia, obtained by replacement of one, two or all the three hydrogen atoms by alkyl and/or aryl groups.
  • Nitrogen atom of amines is trivalent and carries an unshared pair of electrons.


  • Nitrogen orbitals of amines are sp3 hybridized and the geometry of amines is pyramidal.
  • Each of the three sp3 hybridised orbitals of nitrogen overlap with orbitals of hydrogen or carbon depending upon the composition of the amines.
  • The fourth orbital of nitrogen in all amines contains an unshared pair of electrons.
  • Due to the presence of unshared pair of electrons, the angle C–N–E, (where E can be either C or H). is less than 109.50.


  • In case of trimethylamine the bond angle is 1080.

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