They are biological catalysts .Chemically all enzymes are globular proteins
Some important enzymes with their function:
- Lactase : convert lactose àglucose + glactose
- Invertase : convert sucrose à glucose and fructose
- Maltase : convert maltose à2glucose
- Emulsion: convert cellulose àn glucose
- Urease : convert urea àcarbon dioxide and water
- And many more.
Some industrial enzymes invertase and zymase are present in yeast .Enzyme diastase is used as converting starch to maltose , a sugar .the names of all enzymes end with the suffix “ase”.
Properties of enzymes
- Enzymes are required only in small amounts.
- They are highly specific.
- Enzymes are efficient catalyst: they speed up reaction.
- They work at optimum pH, at optimum temperature.
- Their mechanism is controlled by various mechanisms and stopped by various organic and inorganic compounds.
- The action of enzymes follows lock and key mechanism .however enzyme action is inhibited by certain organic molecules called inhibitors.