|Class 12 Chemistry Chemical Kinetics||Rate of reaction|
Rate of reaction
The rate at which the concentration of reactant or product participating in a chemical reaction alters is called rate of reaction.
Rate of reaction = change in concentration/ time = (mol/litre)/time
Reactant (R) --> Product.
Rate = k[R]
k = rate constant or velocity constant.
Let one mole of the reactant A produce one mole of the product B.
Let at time t1
[A]1 and [B]1 = Concentrations of A and B
Let at time t2
[R]2 and [P]2 = Concentrations of A and B
Rate of disappearance of A = Decrease in concentration of R / Time taken = -∆[A]/∆t
Rate of appearance of B = Increase in concentration of P / Time taken = +∆[B]/∆t
When two or more reactants combine with each other the molecules of the respective reactants collide with each other to form the product. The collision between the molecules increases with the increase in concentration of the reactants and thereby increases the rate of reaction.
A + B --> C + D
Here molecules of reactant A and B collide to produce molecules of product C and D.
Therefore we can conclude that rate of reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the participating reactants.
Rate ∝ [A]x [B]y
Or Rate = k[A]x [B]y
Hg(l) + Cl2 (g) --> HgCl2(s)
Rate of reaction= -∆[Hg]/∆t = ∆[Cl2]/∆t = ∆[Hg Cl2]/∆t