Antiseptics & disinfectants
- Antiseptics are applied to the living tissues such as wounds, cuts, ulcers and diseased skin surfaces.
- Examples are furacine, soframicine, etc. These are not ingested like antibiotics.
- Commonly used antiseptic, Dettol is a mixture of chloroxylenol and terpineol.
- Bithionol (the compound is also called bithionol) is added to soaps to impart antiseptic properties.
- Iodine is a powerful antiseptic. Its 2-3 per cent solution in alcohol water mixture is known as tincture of iodine.
- It is applied on wounds.
- Iodoform (CHI3) is also used as an antiseptic for wounds.
- Boric acid in dilute aqueous solution is weak antiseptic for eyes.
- They are applied to inanimate objects such as floors, drainage system, instruments, etc. Same substances can act as an antiseptic as well as disinfectant by varying the concentration.
- For example, 0.2 per cent solution of phenol is an antiseptic while its one percent solution is disinfectant.
- Chlorine in the concentration of 0.2 to 0.4 ppm in aqueous solution and sulphur dioxide in very low concentrations, are disinfectants.
- These are the chemical substances which are used to control pregnancy.
- They are also called as oral contraceptives.
- Birth control pills essentially contain a mixture of synthetic estrogen and progesterone derivatives. Both of these compounds are hormones.
- It is known that progesterone suppresses ovulation.
- Synthetic progesterone derivatives are more potent than progesterone.
- Norethindrone is an example of synthetic progesterone derivative most widely used as antifertility drug. The estrogen derivative which is used in combination with progesterone derivative is ethynylestradiol (novestrol).