Oxidation States of lanthanoids
- The elements belonging to lanthanide series exhibit an oxidation state of +3. For example, Praseodymium (Pr) shows +3 oxidation state.
- Some elements exhibit +2 oxidation states in their complexes in solutions. For example, Samarium (Sm), Europium (Eu), Thulium (Tm) and Ytterbium (Yb) show +2 oxidation state.
- Some elements exhibit +4 oxidation states due to high stability of empty, half-filled or fully filled f-subshells.
- Praseodymium (Pr), Neodymium (Nd), Terbium (Tb) and Dysprosium (Dy) exhibits +4 oxidation state in their oxides.
- Cerium (Ce) shows both +3 as well as +4 state.