It exists as P4 with tetrahedral geometry as shown below:
It has three forms:
- It has a normal tetrahedral structure. They are soft waxy solids.
- They can be cut with knife.
- They are poisonous.
- They are chemiluminescent.
- It is most reactive form of phosphorous.
- It undergoes disproportionate reaction as shown :
- P4 + NaOH ---> PH3 + NaH2PO2
- Phosphorous Sodiumhydroxide Phosphine Sodiumhypo Phosphite
- In this oxidation sate of phosphorous changer from 0 to +1 and -3.
It exists in two forms:
Alpha phosphorous: is formed by heating red phosphorous at 803 K
Beta phosphorous: is formed by heating white phosphorous at 473K
It has most stable due to three dimensional structure as shown:
- It is obtained by heating white phosphorous at 573 K in inert atmosphere.
- It has polymeric structure as shown:
- It is crystalline solid.
- It shines grey.
- It is non poisonous.
- It is more stable.
- It is also chemiluminescent.
- Stability of different forms of phosphorous:
White P< red P <black P