Class 12 Chemistry The Solid State Crystalline Solids

Crystalline Solids

  • This range of solids consists of a broad range of small crystals having a definite characteristic geometrical shape.

 

Fig. Crystals are crystalline solids

  • The constituent particles are arranged in a long range order (symmetry and regularity of arrangement of constituent particles that repeat at any distance from a given atom due to the interaction between the particles) with a regular and periodically repeating pattern over the entire crystal.

  • Crystalline solids possess a sharp melting point.
  • Crystalline solids are anisotropic in nature due to different arrangement of particles in different directions. This leads to different value of physical property along different directions in the same crystals.
  • Metallic elements including iron, copper and silver are typical examples of crystalline solids.
  • On the other hand non – metallic elements like sulphur, phosphorus and iodine and compounds like sodium chloride, zinc sulphide and naphthalene and quartz are typical examples of crystalline solids.

Fig. Crystalline form of Sodium Chloride

  • These solids can be further be into four categories the basis of the nature of intermolecular forces acting over them

Molecular solids

   

Ionic solids

Metallic solids

 

Covalent solids

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