Class 12 Chemistry The Solid State Electrical Properties of soilds

Electrical Properties of soilds

Solids exhibit electrical conductivities that extend from 27 orders of magnitude ranging from 10–20 to 107 ohm–1 m–1.

Conductors:

  • Solids with conductivities ranging between 104 to 107 ohm–1m–1 are conductors.
  • Metals have conductivities in the order of 107 ohm–1m–1 are good conductors.
  • For example, Iron, Copper, Aluminum.

Fig. Metal is used at the tip of the plug that is inserted into the socket

 

Insulators:

  • Solids with very low conductivities ranging between 10–20 to 10–10 ohm–1m–1.
  • For example, Wood, plastic, cloth, glass.

 

Fig. Wood and plastics are also solids but are insulators

 

A man touching the electric pole with a metal rod will get an electric shock because metal rod is a conductor whereas a man touching the same with a wooden plank will be safe because wood is an insulator.

  • Semiconductors:
  • Solids with conductivities in the intermediate range from 10–6 to 104 ohm–1 m–1.
  • For example, Gallium, Germanium, Silicon

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