Class 12 Chemistry The Solid State Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Properties

  • Every substance possesses magnetic properties originated from the electrons present in them.

  • Each electron in an atom behaves like a tiny magnet.
  • The magnetic moment of these substances originates from two types of motions
  • its orbital motion around the nucleus and
  • its spin around its own axis.
  • Electron being a charged particle undergoes these motions and can be considered as a small loop of current possessing a magnetic moment.
  • Therefore, each electron has a permanent spin and an orbital magnetic moment associated with it.
  • Magnitude of this magnetic moment is very small and is measured in the unit called Bohr magneton, μ B and is equal to 9.27 × 10–24A m2.

On the basis of their magnetic properties, substances can be classified into five categories:

  • Paramagnetic
  • Diamagnetic
  • Ferromagnetic
  • Antiferromagnetic
  • Ferrimagnetic.

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