Class 12 Chemistry The Solid State Ferromagnetism


  • Ferromagnetic substances get strongly attracted towards magnetic field.
  • They can be permanently magnetized.
  • In solid state, the metal ions of ferromagnetic substances are grouped together into small regions and are known as domains that act as a tiny magnet.
  • In an unmagnetised ferromagnetic substance the domains are randomly oriented that cancels out their magnetic moments.
  • When placed in a magnetic field all the domains of the substance get oriented in the direction of the magnetic field producing a strong magnetic effect which persists even on removal of the magnetic field and the ferromagnetic substance becomes a permanent magnet.
  • For example, iron, cobalt, nickel, gadolinium and CrO2 are ferromagnetic substances.



  • Whereas in case of Antiferromagnetism domains are oppositely oriented thereby cancel out each other's magnetic moment. For example, MnO.

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