Class 12 Physics Semiconductor Electronics Integrated circuits

Integrated circuits

  • The components like diode, transistor, resistor, inductor, and capacitor are connected by soldering wires in desired manner, to make conventional circuits

 

  • But still such circuits are still bulky; They are also less reliable and less shock proof
  • The concept of fabricating an entire circuit on a small single chip of semiconductor is called Integrated circuit; The chip dimensions are as small as 1mm * 1 mm or even less than that

  • The integrated chip can be categorised into (a) linear or analog IC (b) digital IC
  • Linear or Analog IC – The signals change continuously over a range of values between maximum and minimum; The output varies linearly as the input ; The most useful linear IC is an operational amplifier
  • Digital IC – These have two values – high and low; These contain logical gates. – Depending upon the number of circuit components or logic gates used, they can be classified into SSI, MSI, LSI or VLSI
  • If the number of gates is less than or equal to 10, we call it as SSI – small scale integration
  • If the number of gates is less than or equal to 100, we call it as MSI – medium scale integration
  • If the number of gates is less than or equal to 1000, we call it as LSI – large scale integration
  • If the number of gates is greater than 1000, we call it as VLSI – very large scale integration

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