Adaptation of organisms to the abiotic changes of their habitat
Plants and animals adapt themselves to exist in very cold as well as hot climate. The abiotic factor of a region changes over thousands of years. The organisms need to adapt themselves to thesechanges to survive, the organisms which cannot adapt die out.
Different kindsof organisms are present in different habitats as they adapt to different abiotic changes in different ways.
Let us study about adaptation of different organisms tothe abiotic factors of different habitats:-
- Variety of animals are found in desert along with camels.
- We know about the adaptation of camels but rats, snakes found in desert do not have long legs to keep their body away from sand so they stay in burrows deep in the sand and they come out only during night.
- Plants present in desert lose very little water through transpiration. They are adapted to this by having small leaves or spine shaped leaves and sometimes even the leaves are absent.
- They also have thick wax coated stem, and roots are long to go very deep in to the soil.
Fig. Adaptation of plants in desert habitat
- Different plants and animals found in mountains are adapted to the cold and windy climate and even from snowfall in different ways.
- Trees have cone shaped sloping branches with needle like leaves so that rainwater and snow can slide off easily.
- Animals have thick skin or fur or hair to protect themselves from cold.For example yak, snow leopard.
- The mountain goat is an animal has strong hooves for running up the rocky slopes of the mountains.
Fig. Trees adapted in mountain habitats have cone shaped sloping branches
Fig. Strong hooves of mountain goats
- Prey and predators found in grasslands adapt several features to survive. For example, i) a lion and ii)adeer.
- A lion is a prey wants to eat animals have long claws in the front legs , light brown colour, eyes in front of the face which allows it to hunt animals and kill its prey.
Fig. A lion in a grassland habitat is a predator
Fig. A deer is a prey in the grassland habitat
- A deer in order to run away from its predator has long ears to hear movement, eyes to look in all directions and speed of running to run away from its prey.
- Fishes have streamlined bodies to move easily inside water.
- Other sea animals which do not have streamlined body stay very deep inside the ocean and when they move in water they make their body streamlined.
- Some animals have gills to use dissolved oxygen.
- Some animals like dolphin breathe air through blowholes located on the upper parts of their head. Dolphins can stay inside water without breathing for a long time and when needed come out to the surface to breathe in air.
Fig. Sea animals deep inside the ocean
Ponds and lakes
- The aquatic plants have roots fixed in the soil and only hold plants in place.
- Stems are long, hollow, light and grow above the surface of water and leaves, flowers, float on the surface of water.
- Some aquatic plants are found to be totally submerged in water and these have highly divided leaves for the flow of water without damaging them.
- Frogs are found both in water and land. Their strong back legs help them in catching prey and webbed feet to swim in water.
Fig. A frog near a pond
fig. Aquatic plants having roots fixed in the soil