Class 7 Biology Water: A Precious Resource Ground water

Ground water as an important source of water

  • Near water bodies the soil is moist under the ground because of the presence of ground water.
  • A layer at which the space between particles of soil and gaps between rocks are filled with water, the upper limit of this layer is called water table.

Fig. Water table  

  • Ground water is the water found below water table.

Fig. Ground water 

  • Water table may be at a depth of less than several meters below the ground.
  • The process of seeping of rain water and water from other sources into the ground to form ground water is called infiltration.
  • Rain water and water from rivers, ponds seep through the soil and fill the gaps between particles of soil and rocks.
  • Below the water table, ground water stored between layers of rocks is called as aquifer.


  • Hand pumps and tube wells are used to pump out aquifer water.

Fig. Hand pump 

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