|Class 8 Biology Microorganisms: Friend and Foe||Role of Microbes in Vaccination|
Role of Microbes in Vaccination
Vaccination is a process in which vaccine is given to improve the immunity of the body against a specific disease. Vaccine is a biological preparation that resembles a disease causing microbe. These vaccines are made up of dead or very weak microbes.
In vaccination, a memory of the disease causing organism is created inside the body, so that the body can fight back any further attack of the same disease-causing organism. Vaccine is introduced into the body which resembles a disease-causing organism, at the same time, very mild to cause any harm to the body. The body produces Antibodies in response to the vaccine. These Antibodies fight any further attack of the Antigen.
Antigen refers to any foreign substance inside the body. These can be chemicals, micro-organisms (bacteria, virus etc), Toxins, Pollen etc. Antigens trigger immune system to produce antibodies. Antibodies recognize & neutralize pathogens. Each antibody binds to a specific antigen.
Vaccination has been a huge success. Diseases like small pox are eradicated. Many diseases like polio, tetanus, and measles have been reduced to a large extent.